Shanghai Qipao 1930s 三十年代上海旗袍

Posted by Missuya on Tuesday 25 December 2018

Shanghai in 1930S 三十年代老上海

 

Qipaos are without doubt the most iconic symbols of the world of Old Shanghai and the quintessential fashion piece of the Shanghainese woman. Under the cinematic lights and shadows of the city, the image of the slender, graceful woman in a qipao, wearing high heels, with a wavy coiffure – and slightly rouged lips – has become the most enchanting image in our imaginations of old Shanghai at night.

 

 

旗袍無疑是老上海風情最醒目的符號,也是最能體現上海女人韻味的服裝。燈火闌珊處,一襲華貴的旗袍襯托著修長嫋娜的身姿,高跟鞋、波浪卷髮與輕點的絳唇,伊人被旗袍包裹得玲瓏有致,在夜色中形成一副迷人的景致。

 

 

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Qipao and Chinese Culture
Like Kungfu, Beijing opera, and acupuncture, the qipao is an instantly recognisable symbol of Chinese culture, presenting not just an image of Chinese beauty but also a certain image and conception of Chinese femininity. With a provenance dating back to the long gowns of Qing-era China, the qipao was continually amended and changed by Western concepts of fashion and tailoring, eventually growing in popularity until it became, at one point, the official “gown” or dress of the Han people. Because the Manchus and their descendants were often known colloquially as the ‘Banner People’, so this dress eventually became known as the “qi pao” or “banner gown”.

 

旗袍與國粹

與功夫、京劇、針灸等一樣,旗袍作為中國文化符號之一,不僅是中國女性形象的代言,也是中國女性氣質的體現。它脫胎于清代滿族婦女的長袍,由漢族女性在穿著中吸收西洋服裝式樣不斷改進而定型,還曾經被當時的中華民國政府于1929年定為國家禮服。由於滿族被稱為旗人,所以這種長袍也就被稱為『旗袍』。

 

 

 

On the face of it, qipaos can seem like a conservative fashion form that has withstood any fundamental changes, with the exception of slight variations in the length of the lining, the length of the hem, or how open the split is. The qipao works a subtle magic on the curves and contours of a woman’s neck, chest, waist and hips; with a vertical collar that hugs the neck, the top left piece covering the chest just so, the right piece cradling the waist, the back hem frames the hips, with the split showing glimpses of shapely legs, the qipao is unmatched in its understated elegance and sexiness. The qipao brings out the beauty in the motion of swaying and sashaying, working its way from our eyes into our hearts.

 

 

 

表面上,旗袍拘謹而保守,變化不大,頂多在裡子高低、下擺長短或開叉多少上下點功夫。細究起來,旗袍不動聲色地凸顯了女人的頸圍、胸圍、腰圍和臀圍的曲線。它採用立領對頸進行恰到好處地包裹,左大襟對胸恰如其分地遮掩,右小襟對腰機智巧妙地收護,後擺對臀體貼入微地顯現,衩對腿若隱若現地顯露。這種低調與密實使女人內在暗蘊的性感,隨著柳腰款擺、步履輕移,一點一點撩撥著人心。

 

 

 

Shanghai Style
The history of the qipao is inextricably tied to the history of Shanghai: “Born in Beijing, Raised in Shanghai” is how some describe it – in this city, where East and West meet, the fusion of Chinese traditions and Western fashion aesthetics made for the fertile fashion ground where the qipao would grow and evolve.

 

 

海派風韻

提起旗袍,恐怕人們第一個想到的還是上海。『始於北京,成於上海』,在這個中西文化雜處的大都市,中國傳統與西方服飾審美碰撞融和,成為中國旗袍改良與演進的最佳地點。

 

 

In Shanghai, the traditional Manchu gown formula met Western tailoring and fashion; new additions, such as the lotus collar, the Western flip collar, and the lotus sleeves, expressed a newfound sense of freedom and modernity. By the end of the 1930s, the modern form of qipao began to emerge as it came in to contact with and was transformed by Westernized tailoring techniques; the cut of the chest and waist making the qipao more form-hugging and while at the same time arm slits and in-sleeves were designed so that shoulders and armpit areas had a more tight and bespoke look. Some people even used slight shoulder pads, what they called ‘beauty shoulders’, so that Chinese women began to move away from the sloped shoulder look that had once been popular before. These innovations were conceived and realized in Shanghai.

 

在上海,旗袍的局部被西化,在領、袖處採用西式的處理,如用荷葉領、西式翻領、荷葉袖,,皆為當時人們思想自由的體現。30年代末又出現了『改良旗袍』,裁法和結構更加西化,胸省和腰省的使用讓旗袍更加合身,同時出現了肩縫和裝袖,使肩部和腋下也合體了。有人還使較軟的墊肩,謂之」美人肩」,這表明女性開始拋棄以削肩為特徵的舊形象。這些裁剪和結構上的改變,都是在上海完成的。

 

 

 

Looking back at its origins in the formless, waistless Manchu gown, the changes seem dramatic; with major alterations in the height of the collar, the length of the sleeves, and position of the split, the qipao evolved into something altogether distinct from its forebear, becoming a cultural force in its own right, shaping the tastes and fashions of the day, adding strength to the greater movement for women’s liberation, becoming a staple of any Chinese woman’s wardrobe.

 

旗袍從剛開始的直身無腰,將領子的高低、袖子的長短、開衩的高矮統統做了改變,使其徹底擺脫了老式樣,正適合當時的風尚,為女性解放立了一功,一度成為中國新女性的典型裝扮。

 

 

 

 

 

Eileen Chang and Qipaos 張愛玲與旗袍


In the Shanghai of the 1930s and 1940s, the qipao became the symbol of the force of one woman’s personality – the author and critic Eileen Chang. Known for her flamboyance and style, Chang used to flip through old trunks of vintage clothing from Qing dynasty, wearing these clothes alongside her Western style hair, going wherever she pleased without care for the opinions of others. In fact, her idiosyncratic fashion sense was integral to the expression of personality and beliefs; with money she won from academic scholarships in Hong Kong, she would buy clothing materials and design her own clothing. Bright, vibrant rose coloured print with pink flowers, green leaves on dark blue background – something that rural infants would wear – and she brought it to Shanghai to be made. She was happy with the results. Without her remarkable literary and critical talents, and tastes, few people would try such a stunt.

 

 

 

在那個時代,旗袍成為一個女人個性張揚的標誌,這個女人就是張愛玲。這個當時被稱為『那個愛奇裝炫人的張愛玲』,就是喜歡穿著翻老箱子翻出來的清末服裝,配一個典型的西洋髮型,不怕人地到處走。張愛玲通過做服裝來實踐自己的主張,在香港讀書時,連得幾個獎學金,省下點錢,便自己選衣料,自己設計服裝。有一次,她又從香港帶回一段廣東土布,刺目的玫瑰紅上印著粉紅花朵,嫩綠的葉子印在深藍或碧綠的底上,是鄉下嬰兒穿的,她在上海做成了衣服,自我感覺非常之好。如果不是有著驚世的才華與卓越的鑒賞力,一般人是不敢輕易嘗試這種招搖的。

 

 

 

Soong May-Ling and the Qipao 宋美齡與旗袍

 


If one could count the number of qipaos that resided in Soong May-ling’s wardrobe, it would be a close contender for the current Guinness world record. The astounding number of dresses she owned has very much to do with one extremely dedicated and diligent tailor – Zhang Ruixiang, who was renowned for his meticulous, detailed handiwork and craftsmanship, as well as his loyalty and work ethic – he worked nearly everyday, completing a full qipao in 2-3 days. Every time he finished one, Soong would give it a once over, and then tell someone to store it in her wardrobe, into which it would disappear – perhaps never to be worn again. Aside from resting on the eve of the Chinese New Year, Zhang Ruixiang worked year-round as Soong’s exclusive tailor. The wives of officials who wanted to curry favors would often do so by gifting Soong with fabrics and other materials – leading to a variety and abundance of fabrics that would keep Zhang busy for months and years to come – and that is the story of how Soong May-ling came to have the largest qipao storage center in the world.

 

宋美齡衣櫥內的旗袍件數,大概現今的吉尼斯世界紀錄無出其右者。宋美齡的旗袍件數多,和有一個勤奮的裁縫師傅有很大關系。這位裁縫師傅叫張瑞香,手工細巧、忠心耿耿,幾乎每天都在不停趕工,他大約每兩三天就可以做好一件旗袍。不過做好後,宋美齡一般只是大略看一眼,就命人拿到自己的衣櫥裡妥為保管,以後便再也沒見她穿過。張瑞香除了過年除夕那天休息外,其它時間都在做衣服,而且只為宋美齡做衣服;加上一些大小官太太們為了投其所好,送宋美齡的東西多半有衣料,這些綾羅綢緞就夠張瑞香一年忙到頭。宋美齡的超大型衣櫃,便成為世界最大的旗袍儲藏室。

 

 

 

 

 

Source:  Vantageshangai

摘自:貴在上海雜誌網

 

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