Qipap Legend 旗袍傳說

Posted by Missuya on Saturday 8 December 2018

There is a legend that a young fisherwoman lived by the Jingbo Lake. She was not only beautiful, but also clever and skillful. But when fishing, she often felt hindered by her long and loose fitting dress. Then an idea struck her: why not make a more practical dress for work? She got down to sewing and produced a long multi-looped-button gown with slits, which enabled her to tuck in the front piece of her dress, thus making her job much easier. As a fisherwoman, she never dreamed that a fortune would befall on her.

The young emperor who ruled China at that time had a dream one night. In the dream, his dead father told him that a lovely fisherwoman in Qipao by the Jingbo Lake would become his queen. After awakening from his deep sleep, the emperor sent his men to look for her. Sure enough, there she was! So she became the queen, bringing her Cheongsam with her. Manchu women all followed suit and soon the Qipao became popular.

We do not know whether the story is true or not. But one thing is certain. The Cheongsam came from the Manchus who grew out of ancient Nuzhen tribes. In the early 17th century, Nurhachi, a great political and military strategist, unified the various Nuzhen tribes and set up the Eight Banners System. Over the years, a collarless, tube-shaped gown was developed, which was worn by both men and women. That is the embryo of the Qipao. The dress is called Qipao in Chinese or translated as "banner gown", for it came from the people who lived under the Banner System.

The Chinese apparel Qipao became popular among ladies of the royal family in the Qing Dynasty. At that time, Qipaos were fitted loosely and were so long that they would reach the insteps. Usually, they were made of silk and the whole dress was embroidered, with broad lace trimmed at the collar, sleeves and edges.

 

 

旗袍本來是滿族服裝,由於女式旗袍婦女穿上顯得秀美窈窕,因此便成為全國各族婦女普遍喜愛的一種民族服裝,並且在國際上也享有盛名。這樣優美漂亮的服裝是誰設計的呢?又是怎樣得以推廣呢?這個滿族人民中有個傳說。

  從前在鏡泊湖畔有個漁家姑娘,由於她從小跟著阿媽在湖邊打魚,臉曬得紅裡透黑,人們都叫她黑姑娘。這個黑姑娘不光人長的俊俏,而且心靈手巧,炕上的針線活做的好,打魚的本事更是百裡挑一。那時候,滿族的婦女都穿著古代傳下來的肥大衣裙,可是黑姑娘打魚常在湖邊上轉,樹棵子常刮扯衣服,很不方便,她就剪裁了一種連衣裙的多扣袢長衫。這種長衫兩側開叉,下河捕魚時可將衣襟起來夾在腰間,平時扣袢一直到腿彎兒,當裙子用,既合體又省布。這本來是件好事兒,哪曾想,這樣的長衫卻送了她的命。

 

  有一年,皇上夢見先王告訴他,在北國故都有一位身騎土龍,頭戴平頂卷沿烏盔,手托白玉方印,身穿十二扣錦袍的姑娘,能幫他治理天下。皇上就派欽差下去選妃。因此,八旗姑娘都被招進渤海故都坍塌了的牆圍子裡候選。派來選娘娘的欽差,左挑右挑也沒選中一個。正急得沒法的時候,忽然看到一個臉蛋黑黑的姑娘,頭頂泥盆,手托一塊方豆腐,身穿多扣袢長衫,站在一垛土牆上。這姑娘正是黑姑娘。她上姥姥家串門,穿著自己做的那件長衫,給姥姥買豆腐,回來時路過這古城,見人山人海,不知出了什麼事,也擠上前來,站在那土牆上看熱鬧。因是三伏天的日頭曬得人頭暈,黑姑娘就把豆腐托在手上,騰出泥扣在頭上遮蔭涼。欽差指著黑姑娘喊:“娘娘在這裡!”

      有人問欽差:“怎麼說她是娘娘呢”欽差說:“你們看她站在那土牆不正是一條土龍嗎?她頭上頂的那小泥盆不就是平頂卷沿烏盔嗎?她手托的那塊豆腐不就是八角玉方印嗎?她穿的那件十二個扣袢的長衫便是十二錦袍嗎?”

 

   說完,欽差大人就吩咐隨從硬是把黑姑娘抬進北京。來到宮廷,皇上一看,這黑姑娘雖然黑一些,可長得很俊俏,又非常窈窕秀美。就土封她為黑娘娘。    

      黑娘娘是勞動婦女,過不慣這衣來伸手,飯來張口的生活。她想念家鄉父老、更留戀那真山真水的漁獵生活,進宮後整天擦眼抹淚的,皇上為了安慰她,拿來她家鄉產的人參、貂皮、鹿茸等,黑娘娘一見這“三寶”,想起了當初為了這些稀有的貢品,有多少家鄉父老冒著危險到深山老林裡去採集獵取,甚至有人喪了命,於是她起了很多辦法使皇上把徵收關東的“三寶”由珍貴稀有的人參、貂皮、鹿茸改為隨手可得的草莓、湖鯽、煙袋草了。這一來可把關東的人民樂壞了,到處響起八角鼓,跳起滿族舞,來歌頌黑娘娘的功德。

 

黑娘娘在皇宮裡運用她的智慧,為窮人做了許多好事。後來見宮廷空的山河地理裙又肥大又長,在地上拖拉半截,腳踩、鞋蹬的,實在太可惜,她就動手把這裙子剪開,改制成她從前穿的那種既節約又方便的衣裝。哪曾想這一來惹了大禍。那些娘娘、妃子們本來就很嫉妒她,這回一見她剪了裙子就一齊上殿向皇上告她的狀,說黑娘娘剪掉山河地理裙,這是有意剪斷我主一統江山。皇上聽了就把黑娘娘叫上宮殿來,對她說“穿上這珍貴的絲綢,是做娘娘的福份,節儉二字,在宮廷裡用不上。你擅自改變宮廷服裝是有罪的。

   黑娘娘不認罪,還提到她過不慣這宮庭生活,要求放她回家鄉打漁。皇上一聽氣得離開了龍墩,走到黑娘娘跟前,喊了一聲:“你給我滾出宮去!”

   黑娘娘自從進宮以來,對皇上沒說過一個“謝”字。當她聽到皇上讓她出宮,她一高興說了一句“謝謝皇上”。轉身就要下金鑾殿,皇上罵了一句“真是個賤人”,氣不打一處來,上前就一腳,正好踢在黑娘娘的後心上。黑娘娘就這樣死在皇宮裡。
關東人聽說黑娘娘慘死了,大哭了三天。旗人家的婦女為了紀念黑娘娘,都穿起她剪裁的那件連衣帶裙的系扣長衫。後來,這種長衫就被稱為“旗袍”了,非常神奇。凡是穿上旗袍的婦女,都變得十分苗條、秀美、漂亮,人們都說這是勤勞儉樸、心靈手巧的黑娘娘在暗中説明打扮的。

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